The Reckoning of Time

The Reckoning of Time began during Creation. “the evening and the morning were the first day”.

The Reckoning of Time according to the Catholic/ Gregorian [pagan] Calendar.

  • January: Janus, Roman god of doors, beginnings, sunset and sunrise, had one face looking forward and one backward,
  • February: On February 15 the Romans celebrated the festival of forgiveness for sins; (februare, Latin to purify),
  • March: Mars, the Roman god of war,
  • April: Roman month Aprilis, perhaps derived from aperire, (Latin to open, as in opening buds and blossoms) or perhaps from Aphrodite, original Greek name of Venus,
  • May: Maia, Roman goddess, mother of Mercury by Jupiter and daughter of Atlas,
  • June: Juno, chief Roman goddess,
  • July: Renamed for Julius Caesar in 44 BC, who was born this month; Quintilis, Latin for fifth month, was the former name (the Roman year began in March rather than January),
  • August: Formerly Sextilis (sixth month in the Roman calendar); re-named in 8 BC for Augustus Caesar,
  • September: September, (septem, Latin for 7) the seventh month in the Julian or Roman calendar, established in the reign of Julius Caesar,
  • October: Eighth month (octo, Latin for 8) in the Julian (Roman) calendar. The Gregorian calendar instituted by Pope Gregory XIII established January as the first month of the year,
  • November: Ninth Roman month (novem, Latin for 9). Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1582, skipping 10 days that October, correcting for too many leap years,
  • December: Julian (Roman) year’s tenth month (decem, Latin for 10).

The Reckoning of Time—–pagan names of the days

The names of the days are in some cases derived from Teutonic deities or, such as in Romance languages, from Roman deities. The early Romans, around the first century, used Saturday as the first day of the week. As the worshipping of the Sun increased, the Sun’s day (Sunday) advanced from position of the second day to the first day of the week (and saturday became the seventh day).

Sunday
The name comes from the Latin dies solis, meaning “sun’s day”: the name of a pagan Roman holiday. It is also called Dominica (Latin), the Day of God. The Romance languages, languages derived from the ancient Latin language (such as French, Spanish, and Italian), retain the root.

French: dimanche; Italian: domenica; Spanish: domingo
German: Sonntag; Dutch: zondag. [both: 'sun-day']

Monday
The name comes from the Anglo-Saxon monandaeg, “the moon’s day”. This second day was sacred to the goddess of the moon.

French: lundi; Italian: lunedi. Spanish: lunes. [from Luna, “Moon”]
German: Montag; Dutch: maandag. [both: 'moon-day']

Tuesday
This day was named after the Norse god Tyr. The Romans named this day after their war-god Mars: dies Martis.

French: mardi; Italian: martedi; Spanish: martes.
The Germans call Dienstag (meaning “Assembly Day”), in The Netherlands it is known as dinsdag, in Danmark as tirsdag and in Sweden tisdag.

Wednesday
The day named to honor Wodan (Odin).
The Romans called it dies Mercurii, after their god Mercury.

French: mercredi; Italian: mercoledi; Spanish: miércoles.
German: Mittwoch; Dutch: woensdag.

Thursday
The day named after the Norse god Thor. In the Norse languages this day is called Torsdag.
The Romans named this day dies Jovis (“Jove’s Day”), after Jove or Jupiter, their most important god.

French: jeudi; Italian: giovedi; Spanish: jueves.
German: Donnerstag; Dutch: donderdag.

Friday
The day in honor of the Norse goddess Frigg.
In Old High German this day was called frigedag.
To the Romans this day was sacred to the goddess Venus, and was known as dies veneris.

French: vendredi; Italian: venerdi; Spanish: viernes.
German: Freitag ; Dutch: vrijdag.

Saturday
This day was called dies Saturni, “Saturn’s Day”, by the ancient Romans in honor of Saturn. In Anglo-Saxon: sater daeg.

French: samedi; Italian: sabato; Spanish: sábádo.
German: Samstag; Dutch: zaterdag.
Swedish: Lördag; and in Danish and Norse: Lørdag (“washing day”).


The Reckoning of Time according to the Bible

New Moon

The accurate determination of the new Moon was always of the utmost importance to the Hebrews, because if they were not precise with the exact time of the new moon it would upset their whole calendar, and the Lord of the calendar would be sought on the wrong days. If the Lord is indeed the Lord of times and seasons and designed a calendar, then it was their duty to observe it with accuracy and heart-felt passion.

During the time of Herod’s Temple the high priest was the one chosen to announce the New Moon from the Temple, based upon the testimony of two trustworthy witnesses. Once the announcement was made torches were lit on the Mount of Olives, which was a signal to those waiting upon other hills, even distant hills, that the New Moon had appeared over Jerusalem and to celebrate the New Moon with those even of the dispersion.

 

The Reckoning of Time—–Day and Night

Evening to Evening

The Biblical calendar reckons the days from evening to evening starting at 6:00 pm because of the Scripture:

“And there was evening and there was morning, one day” (Gen 1:5).

When it turns nighttime the day (a 24 hour period) ends and a new one begins. Therefore the day consists of two periods, the period of light (day) and the period of darkness (night).

Daytime to Nighttime

The transition from daytime to nighttime, from light to darkness, and vice versa, is very gradual. Daytime ends just before sunset, and continues until shortly after sunset. Daytime begins just before sunrise and continues until shortly after sunrise. The two periods of transition cannot be defined very accurately, and they are called “erev” and “boker” (evening and morning). There is also a word in the Hebrew “neshef” (dawn and twilight).

Note: The rabbis fixed the duration from daytime to nighttime to be thirteen minutes, thirty seconds before night.

Reckoning of Time—-The Beginning of Night

Nighttime, which we mentioned is the borderline between two consecutive days, is the moment when three stars of the second magnitude become visible (zet ha-kokabim). Thus the length of a day is “from the rising of the morning” (Neh 4:21) “until the stars appear.”

It is important in Judaism that the “zet ha-kokabim” appears during Sabbaths and feast days at different times because the appearance of stars varies from day to day and from place to place. In modern Judaism these figures are calculated.

The Reckoning of Time—–The Day

The Lord’s calendar reckons the days from evening to evening starting at 6:00 pm because of the Scripture:

“And there was evening and there was morning, one day” (Gen 1:5).

When it turns nighttime the day (a 24 hour period) ends and a new one begins. Therefore the day consists of two periods, the period of light (day) and the period of darkness (night).

Both Biblical and Talmudic literature make mention of a division of the night into three or four watches, the morning watch (Ex 14:24), the middle watch (Judges 7:19) and the beginning of the watches (Lam 2:19).

The Reckoning of Time—-The Week

The Week consists of seven days, which are distinguished from one another depending upon their position in the week. They are referred to as the first day, the second day, the third day, the fourth day, the fifth day, the sixth day, and the seventh day (Sabbath). The Sabbath was the most important day in the week and the term “Shabbat” means that week’s were regarded from Sabbath to Sabbath. The Sabbath also referred to longer periods of rest, the year was sometimes called a Sabbath, and the church age is referred to in the Bible as the Sabbath.

The Reckoning of Time—-The Month

The Moon passes through her different phases in 29 days, 12 hours, and 793 parts (halakim) of an hour.

Ps 104:19

“He appointed the moon for seasons; The sun knows its going down.”

These phases of the moon serve as a measure of time and their period is one lunar month. In simplicity the months are determined by full days and set with the beginning of night. Each month contains either 29 or 30 days.

The first appearance of the new moon determines the beginning of the month. It is first noticed as a small and faded arc, like a sickle, that is barely visible. Certain people with excellent eyesight would be the first to see it, yet to avoid confusion the announcement was made by the high priest who determined the New-Moon Day for the whole nation. A fire would be lit upon the Mount of Olives, which would then signal messengers waiting upon the surrounding hills, even beyond the boundaries of Israel to the Diaspora. Sometimes, as in the case of war, the revelation that the new moon had appeared over Jerusalem was sent by a written message. This helped to preserve the religious unity of the nation, and insure the uniform celebration of “the seasons of the Lord” throughout the world.

 The Reckoning of Time—–The Year

Even though the Hebrews divided the year by lunar months, it was revealed by the Lord that the first month should be in the spring:

Ex 12:1-3

“Now the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, “This month shall be your beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. Speak to all the congregation of Israel…”

The Leap Year

As the lunar year consists of 12 months, or 354 days, 8 hours, and 589 parts, it is shorter than the solar year by 10 days, 21 hours, and 204 parts, and so every two or three years the difference is equalized by the addition of a month (intercalary month), following the twelve-month. This Leap Year consists of 383 days, 21 hours, and 589 parts. There were many methods suggested for the equalization of the solar and lunar years, but we will not get into that in this study. The 12th month of the Lunar year is called “Adar”. The added 13th month [leap year] is called Adar 2. This method keeps the seasons and feasts of Israel in sync with the Solar Year. There are many in the Church that believe that the Biblical Year is out of sync with the Gregorian year because they are uninformed regarding the Lord’s Reckoning of Time. A “thousand years” in the Biblical Reckoning of Time, is also a thousand years in the Gregorian Reckoning of Time.

 The Reckoning of Time——A PERSONAL NOTE:

So, what does this information mean to me as a Christian? It poses a very important question. Who am I to believe? Who am I to follow? Shall I LINE UP with the rest of the world and march locked step with the paganized Church which has long ago decided that it is more beneficial to compromise than to remain faithful to the Word of God? I have chosen the Word of God as my authority.

I have chosen NOT to recognize the world’s authority and to stand with that which is stalwart. Christ was not born on December 25th, nor was he crucified at Easter, nor did he recognize January 1st as the beginning of the New Year———–He was every bit a Jew’s Jew, and fulfilled the Law to the dotting of the I and crossing of the T. His sacrifice at the Cross was not an invitation to join the world in rebellion to God’s sovereignty and authority. “Shall we sin that grace may abound?” asks the Apostle Paul. Shall we follow after man rather than God?

Of course we are forced into some responsible effort to get along in this world. My boss will not tolerate my insistence on working on Sunday rather than Saturday since Sunday is the FIRST day of the week and SATURDAY is the day of rest in the Bible reckoning of time. In the world we live in, however, I am not compelled to recognize January 1st as the beginning of a “new year”, nor am I compelled to celebrate the folly of December 25th or Easter. These things are all lies and every lie is from the Father of Lies. The Church today suffers from spiritual Spina Bifida and  lacks the willingness to seek a remedy. Danny McDowell

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